What is an Adjective?
The adjective is a word that states us about or enhances the meaning of a noun. e.g.,
(i) She is a kind lady.
(ii) I like this pen.
(iii) She lives in a large house.
(iv) He is a strong player.
There are the following two classes of adjectives :
(i) Descriptive adjective
(ii) Determiner adjective
Descriptive adjective denotes the quality, size, color, shape, etc. of a noun.
Position of Adjectives —Expressive adjectives are used equally attributively and predicatively while Determiner adjectives are used only before the noun.
She is an honest girl. (Attributive use)
The girl is honest. (Predicative use)
Kinds of Adjectives
A. Descriptive Adjectives
Adjective of Excellence — Horrible, heavy, dry, good, red.
B. Determiner Adjectives – This, that, these, those.
(i) Demonstrative Adjectives – Each, every, either, neither
(ii) Distributive Adjectives. – Some, any, no, little
(iii) Quantitative Adjectives. – few, many all, several, one, first
(iv) Numerical Adjectives – Which, what, whose.
(v) Interrogative Adjectives – My, our, your, his, her, their, its.
(vi) Possessive Adjectives – A moving bus, a wounded driver,
(vii) Present/Past Participle Adjectives – a burnt man, tiring journey.
(viii) Relative Adjectives – who, which, that
(ix) Emphatic Adjectives- – Own, such, same, very.
(x) Proper Adjectives – Indian, Asian, American.
(xi) Exclamatory Adjectives – What, which, how
C. Articles as Determiners
A, An, The
The distinction between Adjectives and Pronouns
(i) Demonstrative Adjectives and Demonstrative pronouns –
(i) Please get me that book. (Adjective)
(ii) That is my book. (pronoun)
(ii) Possessive Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns –
(i) This is my book. (adjective)
(ii) This book is mine. (Pronoun)
(iii) It is her vanity box. (adjective)
(iii) Distributive Adjectives and Distributive Pronouns –
(i) Either boy has stolen my book. (Adjective)
(ii) Neither book will serve my purpose. (Adjective)
(iii) I do not like moreover of the sisters. (Pronoun)
iv) We bought neither of the bikes. (Pronoun)
(iii) Distributive Ad
Note: Every is the only adjective, and it cannot be used as a determiner. But each can be used both as adjective and pronoun.
(v) Every boy was present. (Adjective)
(vi) Each boy was present. (Adjective)
(vii) Each of the boys will come. (Pronoun)
(viii) Every one of them is wasting money. (Pronoun)
Rules of Adjective
Generally speaking, the adjective is used when the quality of a noun and pronoun rather than the action of a verb is expressed.
The adverb is used to modify the action of a verb, an adjective, an adverb. e.g.
(i) She is a skillful dancer. (quality)
(ii) She dances skillfully. (action)
(ii) Sonu’s act was thoughtful. (quality)
(iv) Sonu acted thoughtfully. (action)
The verbs given below are linking verbs
Some verbs are not modified by adverbs. ‘Be, become, seem, appear, taste, smell, turn, get, grow, keep, look, make, prove, etc.
(i) Her voice sounds harsh.
(ii) She appears sad.
(iii) I feel sick.
(iv) She has grown wise.
(v) Mona is smart.
Note: The distinction between the following sentence
1. (a) She looked calm and quiet.
(b) She looked at her angry husband calmly and quietly.
2. (a) The mangoes taste sweet.
(b) She talks sweetly.
There are some adjectives which don’t admit of any comparative and superlative degree. Such adjectives denote absolute position.
distinctive, model, chief, universal, extreme, complete, entire, excellent absolute, impossible, eternal, supreme’ etc.
(1) I have never seen a more complete book on General Studies.
(ii) Happiness is the chiefest aim of mankind.
(iii) How can divided India become the most supreme power?
The comparative adjectives such as –
Inferior, senior, superior, inferior, prefer (verb), preferable, elder, etc. are followed by ‘to’ instead of ‘than’.
Nor are they used in the comparative degree.
(i) He is senior to me in service. (Use ‘to’ in place of ‘than’)
(ii) Lemon juice is preferable than tea. (Use ‘to’ in place of ‘than”)
(iii) My sister is elder than me by two years. (Use ‘to’ in place of ‘than’)
(iv) She prefers coffee rather than tea. (ʻrather than’ in place of ‘to’ is correct.)
(v) She is comparatively smarter than her husband. (Use smart)
(vi) She is more senior to her boss in service. (Remove ‘more’)
(vii) Milk is more preferable to tea. (Remove ‘more)
Note: ‘Rather than’ may be used for ‘to’ after ‘prefer’. (iv)
Note carefully the distinction among the following adjectives :
Little is used for quantity.
(little, less, least)
Few are used for number.
(few, fewer, fewest)
Little means hardly any.
Few means hardly anyone/anything.
A little means not much (some).
A few means not many (some).
The little means not much but all.
The few means not many but all.
Some are used as an adjective.
somewhat is used as an adverb.
Farther means more distant.
(Far, farther, farthest)
Any is used for negative and interrogative sentences and in the sense of every
(No any/Not any are wrong expressions.)
if any further means additional.
Other means the second of the two.
Another means an additional one. (More)
Older/Oldest is used for persons
(not blood relation) and things.
in the case of blood relations.
(Old, older, oldest)
(Old, elder, eldest) It refers both to age and time.
Later is the opposite of earlier. (Refers to position)
Latter is the opposite of the former. (Refers to time)
Latest means recent, last up to now only. (Late, later, latest) [time]
Now study these sentences
(1) Little common sense can bring success to you. (Use ‘a little’)
(ii) Little that she did for me is unforgettable. (Use ‘The’ before ‘little’)
(iii) Little knowledge is a dangerous thing. (Use ‘a’ before ‘little’)
(iv) I requested him to bring me a few books. (Use ‘a few)
(v) Few days I passed in her company were exciting. (Use ‘The few’)
(vi) There are fewer passengers in the compartment today. (Use ‘fewer’)
(vii) There are five students less in class. (Correct)
(viii) I have ten rupees less to pay. (Correct)
(ix) Could you please give me some money? (Correct)
(x) Have you brought some gold for her? (Use ‘any’ in place of ‘some’)
(xi) Little Money you are earning should not be wasted (use the before little)
(xii) She was some angry. (Use ‘somewhat’ in place of ‘some’)
(xiii) She expressed somewhat anger (say ‘some anger’)
(xiv) I have no money in my pocket. (Drop ‘any)
(XV) Moradabad is further from Delhi than Meerut. (Use ‘farther’ in place of ‘further’)
(xi) No farther help from government is required. (Use ‘further in place of farther”)
(xvii) I am still thirsty, please give me another glass of water. (Say ‘another’ in place of ‘other’)